Rejected mating attempts occurred when the female refused to lie on her ventrum, preventing the male from mounting her. Thus, penguins are often classified in the superfamily Procellarioidea with Gaviidae, Procellariidae, and Fregatidae Fordyce and Jones, In one other case nestsecond breeding peakafter 5 days of pair-bonding behaviors without observed copulation with her mate from the previous breeding peak, the female participated in an EPC. EPCs were defined as copulations with an individual other than the pair-bonded mate Westneat et al. Gels were run with the chick DNA nested between that of putative parents and with any potential extrapair mates, as indicated by the behavioral data, run in adjacent lanes to putative family groups. Although penguins are capable of severe fights leading to major injury or occasionally death, in this study females rejected copulations from both extrapair males and their mates without any physical punishment, suggesting that female cooperation is essential for mating to occur.
It is possible that without selection, the male's breeding system drifted in one direction waiting at the nest to solicit extrapair matingwhile the female's breeding system drifted in another roaming the colony to seeking extrapair mating.
The Nude Female Figure
Oct 02, Pages Buy. Unless offspring require extensive paternal care, which may compete directly with EPC effort, the male should employ a strategy of seeking EPCs Westneat et al. Two peaks of egg laying occur, one in April and another in August Murphy, In addition to copulations between bonded partners, 19 EPCs were witnessed. A variety of costs to the male for participating in EPCs have been noted, all of which must be balanced against the potential increased fitness through increased lifetime reproductive success Gowaty, ; Trivers, ; Westneat, Riofrio for help in the field.